These were composed by families of seer-poets - Gritsamada, Vishvamitra, Vamadeva, Atri, Bhradvaja and Vasishtha.
Book 1, 8, 9 and 10 of Rig Veda Samhita, Samhitas of Sama, Yajur and Atharva Vedas, Brahmanas, Aranyakas, Upanishads attached to all the four Vedas.
Early Vedas - Rig Veda Samhita, Book 2-7
Talked about River Indus and its five tributaries and River Saraswati.
Boats and Oceans are mentioned.
Rig Veda talks about warring tribes. Five tribes - Yadu, Turvasha, Puru, Anu and Duhyu are collectively known as five people or Pancha-Jana.
Battle of Ten king is mentioned. Political alliances were fluid and shifting.
Rig Veda mentions assemblies such as the Sabha and Samiti.
Society and Culture:
Rig Veda consists of non-Indo-European words which show interaction with Dravidian and Munda languages.
Ashvamedh sacrifice is mentioned.
Cow was given great importance.
Rig Veda mentions that Gifts were received by Rajan from members of the clan. Priests received dana and dakshina at the conclusion of sacrificial rituals.
Slavery system existed. There was enslavement in the course of war or as a result of debt.
Food- Milk and Milk products, Grains, Vegetables and Fruits, Meat etc.
Clothing- People wore clothes of cotton, wool and animal skin and donned a variety of ornaments..
Culture- There are reference to Singing, Dancing, Musical instruments like Vina (Lute), Vana (Flute) and drums. Dramas, chariot racing and gambling were past times.
Brahmana and Kshatriyas are mentioned but Vaishya and Shudra are not mentioned.
Brahmana drank Soma and recited hymns.
There is no indication of the group being based on birth.
Four fold varna is part of Later Vedic text in the tenth book of Rig Veda Samhita. 10th book contains Purusha-sukta.
Status of Women:
In Political and Public sphere:
Vedic people worshipped Goddesses.
Hymns in Rig Veda are composed by women.
Women Sages existed.
Women participated in rituals along with their husbands.
Took part in chariot races and sabhas.
In Personal Sphere:
Proportion of hymns composed by women is miniscule. Thus, Women enjoyed limited access to sacred learning.
No women priests in the Rig Veda.
Women participated as wives not on their own. Nor do they give dana and dakshina.
Society was patriarchal and Patrilineal.
Institution of Marriage:
Monogamy, Polygyny and Polyandry are mentioned.
Marriage happened post puberty.
Women chose husbands.
Remarriage was allowed if husband died or disappeared.
Also reference to unmarried women- Ghosha.
People eloped too.
Universe divided between Sky (dyu), Earth (prithvi) and the middle realm (Antariksha).
Apart from Gods, Gandharvas (Celestial beings), Apsaras, Rakshas, Yatudhanas (sorcerers) and Pishachas (spirit of the dead) are also mentioned.
Indra, Agni, Surya, Ushas, Varuna, Mitra, Vayu, Rudra, Vishnu etc are mentioned. Indra is also known as Vritrahan (slayer of Vritra). Varuna is the god of Secular power, Sovereignty and Kingship. Varuna is also associated with Maya.
Rig Veda refers to both burial and Cremation.
Agriculture is mentioned in the Rig Veda.
There are references to seed processing, food prepared from cereals, Large jars that were probably used to store grains.
Hymns refer to professions such as warriors, priests, Cattle-rearers, farmers, Hunters, Barbers and Vintners.
War booty was the major source of wealth. There is difference
in wealth and rank.
Inequalities existed between master and slave and men and women.
Mature Harappan Civilisation - Part 3 - Religion, Funeral, People, Politics and Decline
February 18, 2018
Mature Harappan Civilisation - Part 2 - Subsistence, Craft, Techniques, Trade, Writing and Script
February 18, 2018
Mature Harappan Civilisation - Part 1- Sites, size, features and discoveries.
February 18, 2018
Early Harappan Civilisation - How the Civilisation matured to become the most flourishing civilisation?