Mughals - Babur

February 10, 2018

The Mughals

 

The Mughal empire was founded by Babur, a central asian ruler who claimed lineage from Timur on his father's side and from Chagatai, the second son of the Mongol ruler, Chengiz Khan.

 

Babur:

  • Invited to fight Ibrahim Lodhi by Daulat Khan Lodhi, Alam Khan and Rana Sanga of Mewar

  • First Battle of Panipat: 1526:

    • Ibrahim Lodhi and Babur

    • Babur applied Rumi (ottomon) method of warfare, also known as Turghana system of warfare, wherein he encircled Lodhi's army from both flanks.

    • Under expert Ottomon gunners Ustad Ali and Mustafa

  •  Problems he faced after winning the battle:

    • Nobles wanted to go back to Central Asia.

    • Rajputs were relaying around under the leadership of Rana Sanga

    • Afghans though defeated at Panipat, were still left in some parts of UP, Bihar, Odisha. 

  • Battle of Khanwa:

    • Rana Sanga of Mewar and Babur

    • Babur adopted the title of Ghazi after defeating Sanga 

  • Battle of Chanderi:

    • Babur and Medini Rai

  • Battle of Ghagra:

    • Babur and Mahmud Lodhi

  • Significance of Babur's advent in India:

    • Security from external invasions from north-west frontier

      • For the first time after the downfall of the Kushana empire, Kandahar and Kabul became the integral parts of the Mughal empire.

    • Established a pan-India empire by breaking the power of the Rajput Confederacy

    • New mode of warfare and popularised the use of gunpowder, cavalry and artillery in India

    • Devoted follower of Naqshbandiya Sufi Khwaja Ubaidullah Ahrar

    •  Books:

      • Turkish: Tuzuhk e Babri/Babarnama (translated into Persian by Abdur Rahim Khan-i-Khinan)

      • Mansavi

    • Architecture:

      • 3 mosques:

        • Panipat

        • Sambhul, near Rohilkhand

        • Babri Masjid

 

 

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